What is a partition coefficient? What is the relationship between a substance’s partition coefficient and its membrane permeability? Who did the early studies that demonstrated the relationship between membrane permeability and the partition coefficient?
What are two key differences between hexokinase and glucokinase?If a red blood cell has an internal osmolarity of 300 mOsm
A) What is molarity of an iso-osmotic NaCl solution? What would be the molarity of an iso-osmotic CaCl2?
Note: f = 0.93 for NaCl and 0.86 for CaC
Outline how gut endothelial cells transport glucose from the gut lumen to the blood. Include all relevant transport mechanisms and the concentration gradients involved (is glucose going up or down its concentration gradient?
What was Gorter and Grendel’s contribution to our understanding of membrane structure? Outline their experiment that led to their model of membrane
What is the difference between a cofactor and a coenzyme? How are they similar?
Myoglobin (pictured below) is globular, oxygen-binding protein found in muscle and was the first protein whose structure was determined by x-ray crystallography. What level of protein organization does it represent? Label the levels of protein organization that can be seen in its structure.
Give a brief description of one positive feedback cycle ?
What are (the) 4:
a) Key functions of cell membranes?
b) Types of receptors used in cell-signaling
c) Factors that influence enzyme reaction rate.
d) Functional classes of proteins. (Note: Not primary, secondary, etc)
e) Factors that influence the rate of diffusion of a molecule across a membrane.
Outline the feedback mechanism that regulates blood glucose homeostasis. (Don’t include the intracellular components.)
Give an example of a hydrolysis reaction discussed in class. What happens to the water molecule in the reaction? (4 pts)
What is the role of positive feedback in labor (childbirth)? (4 pts)
Briefly describe two key features of the Hippocratic Oath that are relevant to modern doctors. (4 pts)
The genetic code is a “triplet code.” Explain. (4 pts)
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