A ) motivation
B ) stress
C ) learning
D ) emotions
E ) perception
42. Experience stimulates the production of ____________ to produce brain plasticity in the form of enduring structural changes
A ) neurotransmitters
B ) hormones
C ) neurotrophic factors
D ) genes
E ) DNA
43. The process of neurogenesis (i.e., the creation of new neurons in the brain) has been described most frequently in which brain region:
A ) nucleus accumbens
B ) hippocampus
C ) amygdala
D ) thalamus
E ) reticular formation
44. The role of neural reorganization in recovery of function after brain damage can be described as
A ) controversial, but it is assumed to play some role.
B ) recently well-understood.
C ) well-understood only in lower mammals
D ) well-established.
E ) incorrect and has been rejected
45. The development of new neurons in adult brains can be described by the following EXCEPT:
A ) adult brains are capable of major adaptation.
B ) adult brains are not as plastic as developing brains.
C ) adult brains are set in their own ways.
D ) new neurons created in adult brains can be integrated into existing neural circuits
E ) new neurons created in adult brains can be influenced by the environment or behavior of the organism
46. An effective treatment for unipolar depression involves
A ) lithium salts.
B ) electroconvulsive shock therapy.
C ) drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin or norepinephrine.
D ) sleep deprivation.
E ) drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAOi).
47. Fluoxetine (Prozac) is an effective treatment for ________ that works by ________.
A ) schizophrenia; blocking dopamine receptors
B ) depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder; blocking serotonin reuptake
C ) nxiety disorders; inhibition of MAO
D ) delusions and hallucinations; blocking serotonin reuptake
E ) obsessive-compulsive disorder; releasing glycine
48. Which of the following supports the contention that schizophrenia is associated with brain damage?
A ) The size of the lateral ventricles decreases in schizophrenic patients.
B ) The size of the lateral ventricles increases in schizophrenic patients.
C ) The neurological symptoms noted in schizophrenia are unique to this disorder.
D ) Control subjects are more likely to show neurological symptoms.
E ) Older people, who have already lost substantial numbers of neurons, are more likely to develop schizophrenia than are younger people.
49. Methylphenidate, the most common treatment for ADHD, is likely to:
A ) reduce the likelihood of activation of other neurons.
B ) impair dopamine neurotransmission.
C ) increase synaptic levels of dopamine.
D ) decrease synaptic levels of dopamine.
E ) aggravate the behavioral symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity
50. The relatively poor ability of an autistic person to interact socially with others is likely due to
A ) a failure of activation of brain areas associated with face perception.
B ) damage to the ascending visual pathways.
C ) visual acuity problems.
D ) enhanced activity within their orbitofrontal cortex.
E ) an infection involving the corpus callosum.
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