Academic writing in the sciences addresses new scientific developments and clarifications of scientific questions, most frequently in the form of a lab report, journal article, or literature review. The natural sciences include fields such as astronomy, biology, chemistry, and physics; the social sciences include anthropology, economics, linguistics, political science, sociology, and psychology.
Scientific papers commonly follow the IMRAD model, which stands for introduction, method, results, and discussion.
The introduction should describe elements such as the paper’s motivation, aim, problem, tested hypothesis, novel contributions, background materials, and an overview of the subsequent material.
The methods section should cover the writer’s assumptions, system model, simulation model, and performance measures. For an original study, when, where, and how the study was conducted, what materials were used, and who was included in the study groups should all be included.
In describing the results, the writer should include any empirical data, charts, and plots that convey the answer to the research question, and state whether the research hypothesis was proven or not proven.
The discussion section should analyze the results, state why they matter, contextualize them in relation to existing research, and suggest the implications for future research.
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