main steps of the cycle of enzyme-substrate interactions | Cheap Nursing Papers

main steps of the cycle of enzyme-substrate interactions

I need this to be good, in 6th edition APA style and need it like 4 days ago or ASAP. Unit 2 and 3 assignments are below.Unit 2 Individual ProjectBackground:Whether it was volcanic activity that spewed sulfur dioxide and ash into the atmosphere, or a giant meteor that crashed into the Earth blasting dust and debris into the sky, both theories of what caused the dinosaurs to become extinct share one critical similarity light from the sun was obliterated. The result of the months long darkness was the mass extinction of nearly 70% of all creatures on Earth.Like the dinosaurs, humans cannot live without the sun. Not only does it provide light and warmth, it is also the energy source for arguably the most important chemical reaction on Earth: photosynthesis.Answer the following assignment questions:1. Explain how photosynthesis and respiration are linked in order to provide you with energy from the food you eat.Include in your essay:Complete descriptions of photosynthesis and aerobic respiration.Describe how these two processes are linked between plants and animals based on the reactants and products (water, carbon dioxide, glucose and oxygen) of both pathways.Include a description of how energy is transferred from sunlight to ATP, from ATP to sugars, and from sugars to your cells.2. In the absence of oxygen some cells and organisms can use glycolysis coupled to fermentation to produce energy from the sugar created by photosynthesis.Explain the role of fermentation in allowing an organism to generate energy for its cell(s) in the absence of oxygen.Include any reactions required for this process, and explain how the energy from the sun ends up as chemical energy for the anaerobic organism or cell.3. Cells use enzymes as biological catalysts to increase or accelerate the rate of reactions, such as those in photosynthesis or glycolysis. This allows reactions to occur under conditions that sustain life.Explain how an enzyme catalyzes a reaction. Include in your essay the three main steps of the cycle of enzyme-substrate interactions.How is enzyme activity regulated by the cell?ReferenceAudesirk, T., Audesirk, G., and Byers, B. (2008). Biology Life on earth with physiology (8th Ed.). San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings.Your essays should be several paragraphs in length for each question, be thoroughly paraphrased, and include appropriate in-text citations and a reference list in APA format.For information on Macintosh Word shortcuts,>here.Please submit your assignment.For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials. Please refer to the following multimedia course material(s)Unit 2: Cellular BasicsUnit 2: The CellExternal Web links:Unit 2: Cellular RespirationUnit 2: Center for the Study of Early Events in PhotosynthesisUnit 2: Introduction to PhotosynthesisUnit 3 Individual ProjectComplete all three parts and answer all>Graphic Organizer for answering all questions and genetics exercises in this assignment.Part I: Genetics From Genes to Proteins, MutationsBackground:DNA represents the architectural blueprint for all living systems, encoding specific instructions in the sequence of its four nitrogen-containing base pairs that are necessary for building the organism.During the process of transcription, the information in the DNA codons of a gene is transcribed into RNA.A change in the DNA sequence, for example as a result of a mistake during DNA replication, is defined as a mutation. Mutations may result in a change in the blueprint, which may then change the resulting protein product.Assignment details for part one:Transcribe and translate EACH of the three following DNA gene sequences. Turn these in using the graphic organizer. The letters represent the DNA N-base sequences of the genes.The first is the original gene. The next two are mutations of the original. Note that the changes (mutations) are shown in red.Original Gene sequence 3-T A C C C T T T A G T A G C C A C T-5Mutated gene sequence 1 3-T A C G C T T T A G T A G C C A TT-5Mutated gene sequence 2 3-T A AC C T T T A CT A G G C A C T-5Also, answer the following questions:What is the significance of the first and last codons of an mRNA transcript?What meaning do these mRNA codons have for protein synthesis?Did the mutations result in a change in the final proteins? If so, describe the change.In general, why might a change in amino acid sequence affect protein function?Part II: Inheritance of Traits or Genetic DisordersBackground: Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that affects the respiratory, digestive, or reproductive systems of the body, with symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Bob and Sally are recently married. Upon deciding to plan a family, both Sally and Bob find out that they are both heterozygous for cystic fibrosis, but neither of them has symptoms of the disorder.Assignment details: Complete a Punnett Square for cystic fibrosis for this couple using the following alleles: C = normal allele; and c = allele for cystic fibrosis.Complete the Punnett Square in the graphic organizer.Also answer the following questions:Based on the Punnett square, calculate chances (percentages) for the following:for having a healthy child (not a carrier)a child that is a carrier for the cystic fibrosis traita child with cystic fibrosisBe sure to submit these percentages as part of your assignment in the Graphic Organizer.Part III: Cell division, sexual reproduction and genetic variabilityBackground: Eukaryotic cells can divide by mitosis or meiosis. In humans, mitosis produces new cells for growth and repair; meiosis produces sex cells (gametes) called sperm and eggs.Although mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variability, both meiosis and sexual reproduction also can contribute to new genetic combinations in offspring.Assignment Essay Question: How do both meiosis and sexual reproduction (fertilization) produce offspring that differ genetically from the parents? Be sure to talk about the two specific steps in meiosis that increase variability as well as the process of fertilization.You will submit your Graphic Organizer with all answers in your Submit Assignment area.Provide references in APA format. This includes a reference list and in-text citations for references used throughout the assignment. Note that there is a Reference page for listing sources included on the Graphic Organizer.You will submit your Graphic Organizer with all answers.Please submit your assignment.For assistance with your assignment, please use your text, Web resources, and all course materials. Please refer to the following multimedia course material(s):Unit 3: Evolution & HeredityUnit 3: The Basics of GeneticsUnit 3: Principles of Heredity and DNAExternal Web links:Unit 3: DNA, RNA, ProteinUnit 3: DNA, RNA, & ProteinUnit 3: Genetic Science Learning CenterUnit 3: Meiosis

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