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REVIEW EXAMS 1 –> 3
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base balance
fluid balance hormones
Most important ions extracellularly and intracellularly
Functions of the common ions
Bicarbonate buffer system
5 processes from ingestion to defecation
Structure of the teeth
Macronutrients and their breakdown products
Mechanical and chemical digestion
Composition of saliva
Structural characteristics and functions of stomach, small intestines and large intestines
Gastric motility and secretion
Function(s) of the liver
Function(s) of pancreas
Composition of digestive juice and pancreatic juice
Function of the gall bladder
Carla was startled by an extremely loud bang that sounded like a gun shot. Her sympathetic nervous system shot into action. What physiological changes did she experience as a result of the sympathetic nervous system being activated? When she realized that the noise was only a car backfiring, she felt greatly relieved but her sympathetic nervous system remained activated for over half an hour. Why did this happen?
You will have a list of 6 hormones and will be required to give a brief explanation of the function. Hormones will be from the hormone chart completed at the start of the semester.
Jennifer, a newborn baby, needs surgery because she was born with an aorta that arises from the right ventricle and a pulmonary trunk that issues from the left ventricle, a condition called transposition of the great vessels. What are the physiological consequences of this defect?
Differentiate between humoral and cellular immunity. Include what cells they use and the steps they take to protect the body from infection. I want a detailed accounting of what happens when both types encounter an antigen
Drugs called renin inhibitors are utilized to control high blood pressure. Detail why this type of drug would be able to control high blood pressure. NOTE – to receive full credit you must give me the whole cascade of effects that inhibiting renin would cause J
Describe how the respiratory system and the urinary system work together to maintain acid-base balance in the body.
Why is it necessary for the stomach contents to be so acidic? How does the stomach protect itself from digestion?
You have just eaten a steak. Detail its journey throughout the digestive tract. Be sure to note what is happening to the protein during the digestive process in each organ.
Pick two structures in the female reproductive tract and discuss how their structure is related to function. Pick two structures in the male reproductive tract and discuss how their structure is related to function.
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