- OverviewFor this 6–8-page assessment, you will discuss issues revolving around test administration errors, bias and fairness, and the role of technology in psychological testing, along with the APA principles that address these issues. You will then develop a plan that outlines the steps you will take to avoid violating APA ethical principles related to these issues in your current or future profession.By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:SHOW LESS
- Competency 1: Demonstrate comprehension of the terminology, principles, statistical concepts, and psychometric features related to the construction and application of psychological tests.
- Identify common errors made in psychological and educational tests.
- Describe how errors in test administration and scoring may impact test validity.
- Explain how test norms and standardization may contribute to biased results for an individual.
- Competency 3: Evaluate the properties, techniques, and applications used in psychological evaluation.
- Develop a plan to minimize errors in psychological and educational tests.
- Competency 4: Evaluate the legal, ethical, and professional issues related to test usage.
- Identify steps to minimize violation of APA assessment principles related to psychological tests.
- Competency 5: Analyze the impact technology has had on the techniques and applications used in psychological testing.
- Describe the role of technology in psychological assessment.
- Identify the ethical guidelines regarding the use of technology in psychological assessment.
- Competency 6: Integrate fairness in testing with ethical and legal considerations and sensitivity.
- Describe the steps to minimize violation of the APA ethical principles related to test bias and fairness.
- Competency 7: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for members of the psychological profession.
- Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with expectations for members of the psychological profession.
- Competency MapCHECK YOUR PROGRESSUse this online tool to track your performance and progress through your course.
- Toggle DrawerContextIt is important to view testing as a social relationship. While the psychologist, like an engineer, is measuring an object with a technical tool, the tester’s object is a person. Establishing personal rapport in administering tests is, therefore, essential, especially in individual testing. Examiners should be aware that their rapport with the test taker can influence the results.SHOW LESSThe Assessment 2 Context document contains important information related to the following topics:
- The Use of Technology in Assessment.
- Computers, the Internet, and Testing.
- Trends in Psychological Testing.
- Technological advances will raise many questions. Asking questions is important because this help us understand how we, and the people we work with, can be affected. The therapeutic relationship has always been important in counseling and therapy.While testing is not therapy, how we interact with the people we test can affect their performance. Psychological testing will change not only with technology but with social and legal changes. However, technology will not change everything we do in the future. We must always use tests and the information they provide professionally and ethically, just as we do today.
- Toggle DrawerQuestions to ConsiderTo deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the business community.
- What are common errors with administering and scoring psychological tests?
- What APA ethical principles are relevant to the administration, scoring, and interpretation of psychological tests?
- What is the role of technology in psychological testing?
- What APA ethical principles address the use of technology in psychological assessment?
- What are some sources of test bias?
- What are some steps you can take to avoid making errors and violating ethical principles when administering, scoring, and interpreting psychological tests?
- Toggle DrawerResourcesRequired ResourcesThe following resources is required to complete the assessment. Internet ResourcesAccess the following resources by clicking the links provided. Please note that URLs change frequently. Permissions for the following links have been either granted or deemed appropriate for educational use at the time of course publication.
- American Psychological Association. (2014).Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
- SHOW LESSSuggested ResourcesThe following optional resources is provided to support you in completing the assessment or to provide a helpful context. For additional resources, refer to the Research Resources and Supplemental Resources in the left navigation menu of your courseroom. Capella resources click the links provided to view the following resources:
- Assessment 2 Context.
- Capella University Library: Tests and Methods Searching.
- Library ResourcesThe following e-books or articles from the Capella University Library are linked directly in this course:
- Domino, G., & Domino, M. L. (2006).Psychological testing: An introduction(2nd ed.). Cambridge, NJ: Cambridge University Press.
- Chapter 11, “Testing in a Cross-Cultural Context.”
- Canivez, G. L. (2005).Bias (testing). In S. W. Lee (Ed.),Encyclopedia of school psychology(pp. 67–69). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Gorard, S. (2010).Measuring is more than assigning numbers. In G. Walford, E. Tucker, & M. Viswanathan (Eds.),The SAGE handbook of measurement(pp. 389–409). London, GBR: Sage.
- In’nami, Y., & Koizumi, R. (2009, April).A meta-analysis of test format effects on reading and listening test performance: Focus on multiple-choice and open-ended formats.Language Testing, 26(2), 219–244.
- Loe, S. A., Kadlubek, R. M., & Marks, W. J. (2007, July).Administration and scoring errors on the WISC-IV among graduate student examiners.Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 25(3), 237–247.
- Bacon, D. R. (2003, April).Assessing learning outcomes: A comparison of multiple-choice and short-answer questions in a marketing context.Journal of Marketing Education, 25(1), 31–36.
- Currie, M., & Chiramanee, T. (2010, October).The effect of the multiple-choice item format on the measurement of knowledge of language structure.Language Testing, 27(4), 471–479.
- Ramos, E., Alfonso, V. C., & Schermerhorn, S. M. (2009, August).Graduate students’ administration and scoring errors on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities.Psychology in the Schools, 46(7), 650–657.
- Scheu, I. E., & Lawrence, T. (2013).Considerations of translating psychological tests into digital mediums: A case study.Journal of Educational Computing Research, 49(2), 133–154.
- Nicholson, I. R. (2011, August).New technology, old issues: Demonstrating the relevance of the Canadian code of ethics for psychologists to the ever-sharper cutting edge of technology.Canadian Psychology, 52(3), 215–224.
- Course Library GuideA Capella University library guide has been created specifically for your use in this course. You are encouraged to refer to the resources in the PSY-FP7610 – Tests and Measurements Library Guide to help direct your research.
- Assessment InstructionsTo prepares for this assessment, use the suggested resources and other scholarly sources to investigate the ethical implications of common psychometric issues related to errors in test administration, scoring, and interpretation; bias and fairness; and the role of technology in psychological testing. Based on your research, write a paper in three parts, as instructed below. Examine the APA code of ethics (the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Ethics, linked in the Resources) in relation to these topics, develop a plan to avoid violating APA ethical principles in your current or future profession, and outline the steps you will take. Complete all three parts of this assessment. Part One: Test Administration, Scoring, and interpretation based on your research discuss issues related to errors in test administration, scoring, and interpretation. Include the following:
- Describe common errors made in the administration, scoring, and interpretation of psychological tests.
- Identify and describe the relevant APA ethical principles related to the administration, scoring, and interpretation of psychological tests. Begin with Section 9 of the APA code of conduct.
- Identify other APA principles that are indirectly related to psychological assessment, such as those addressing competency, avoidance of harm, and informed consent. Explain how they are related to psychological assessment.
- Outline the steps you can take to minimize testing errors that would violate APA principles related to the administration, scoring, and interpretation of psychological tests.
- Part Two: Test FairnessBased on your research, discuss issues related to test bias and fairness. You may use the suggested resources to support your analysis in this section, but you are encouraged to reference additional scholarly sources related to test bias and fairness. Include the following:
- Describe how test norms and standardization can become sources of test bias. Explain how bias associated with normative procedures and standardization can impact the validity of results for an individual.
- Also address additional sources of test bias (such as administration, scoring, interpretation, test content, and differential validity).
- Explain how these sources of bias can impact the validity of results for an individual.
- Explain the APA principles that address test bias and fairness.
- Outline the steps you can take to minimize violation of APA ethical principles related to testing bias and fairness.
- Part Three: Technology and Psychological assessment based on your research, discuss the role of technology in psychological assessment. Include the following:
- Describe the role of technology in the administration, scoring, and interpretation of psychological tests.
- Identify the strengths and limitations of technology use in psychological assessment.
- Identify potential ethical issues in the use of technology in psychological assessment.
- Explain the APA principles related to the use of technology in psychological assessment.
- Outline the steps you can take to minimize violation of APA ethical principles related to technology and psychological assessment.
- Additional Requirements
- APA formatting: Your paper must be formatted according to APA (6th edition) style and formatting, including the following:
- Include a title page and reference list.
- Use Times New Roman, 12-point font.
- APA expectations for scholarly writing include the use of third-person narrative unless it is awkward to do so. However, because you are talking about yourself in this paper, you may write in the first person.
- Resources: You may use the suggested resources as well as your own research in the scholarly literature of the field.
- Document format: Submit your paper as a Word document.
- Length: Your assessment should be6–8typed, double-spaced pages in length. (The length excludes the title page and reference list.)
ETHICAL PRINCIPLES IN EDUCATIONAL TESTING
Now that you have developed a good understanding of such important concepts as validity and reliability, you are ready to focus on issues related to test design and development, test administration, test scoring, and the reporting and interpretation of scores.
The term, test development, refers to the process of producing a measure of some aspect of an individual’s knowledge, skills, abilities, interests, attitudes, or other characteristics by writing questions or developing tasks, and then combining them to form a test according to a specified plan.
The term, test design, on the other hand, outlines the steps and considerations for test development as well as test administration, scoring procedures, and reporting the results.
This assessment looks at APA ethical principles (2010) as they relate to psychological assessment. According to APA Standard 9.0,
“Psychologists administer, adapt, score, interpret or use assessment techniques, interviews, tests or instruments in a manner and for purposes that are appropriate in light of the research on or evidence of the usefulness and proper application of the techniques.” In addition, it is the ethical responsibility of test users to “use assessment instruments whose validity and reliability have been established for use with members of the population tested.” (APA, 2010)
It is important to view testing as a social relationship. While the psychologist, like an engineer, is measuring an object with a technical tool, the tester’s object is a person. Establishing personal rapport in administering tests is, therefore, essential, especially in individual testing. Examiners should be aware that their rapport with the test taker can influence the results.
They should also remember that scores sometimes can be affected by subtle processes, such as the level of performance the examiner expects. The recurrent question about the match of the examiner to test takers in ethnicity or race is a serious one, and has received considerable attention. An important point to note is that the examiner’s effects tend to increase when procedures for properly administering the test are not clearly presented in adequate detail, and when the examiners have not received the required training.
The Use of Technology in Assessment
Psychology is changing the way we conduct evaluations, administer tests, and the way we provide treatment. Technological advances in neurology, physiology, and genetics are just a few areas that have changed our ability to evaluate, treat, do research, and teach about the field of psychology. More to the point, how we administer psychological tests has been greatly impacted by technology. We can also reach more people; people who might not otherwise receive the services they need. These changes all sound good, but there are cautions about the changes that will be required. In this unit, you will examine technology and the future of testing. Positive and negative aspects will be addressed.