Please write short replies in your own words about the below answers :
1. Identify and explain the structure and function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
The Smooth endoplasmic reticulum can be identified as a flat sac-like structure with no ribosomes and functions to create many of the cells lipids, as well functioning in detoxifying destructive chemicals that may pass throughout the cell.
2. If the golgi apparatus is not working properly in the turtle’s cells, what would happen?
The golgi apparatus, also known as the golgi body, is an important part of the cell. This is where vesicles transport proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum to be sorted. You can think of the golgi apparatus like a post office. The vesicles transport the proteins and lipids to the post office, where they are sorted, packaged and disrupted to where they need to go within the cell. The deposits are made in the lumen of the golgi apparatus, where the vesicles fuses with it to empty its contents. The proteins and lipids undergo a transformation while traveling through the golgi apparatus. Most frequently, short sugar molecule chains are added to the protein and lipid structures. Small molecular groups are used to label the new chains, ensuring they are marked properly for distributed to their new destination. New vesicles arrive at the other end of the lumen on the golgi apparatus, where they take the newly transformed protein and lipids. During this phase, there are two types of vesicles that may be used. A transport vesicle is used to transport the proteins and lipids to destinations within the cell to be used locally. Secretory vesicles are used to transport the contents outside of the cell, where it fuses with the plasma membrane.
If the golgi apparatus in the turtle’s cells were not working properly, this would be detrimental. Nothing would be received from the ER, causing vesicles of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to be floating around the cell. This would cause build up of the vesicles in the cell and they would pollute the cell. Proteins would remain unchanged and other organs in the cell would not function properly. They would not be receiving the broken down proteins and lipids needed for their daily functions. One example of this would be lysosomes. If they do not receive the broken down proteins, there will be no digestive enzymes needed to break down the “garbage” in the cell that needs to be disposed of. Secretion from the cell would also stop. The golgi apparatus produces the secretory vesicles that are used to dispose of unneeded protiens and lipids from the cell. This would also lead to pollution in the cell.
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